Agricultural Typology of Rajasthan.

World Types of Agriculture: A Type forming System
An Application of International scheme
Agricultural Typology of Rajasthan.
By - B L Sharma, 1983, Pankaj Prakashan, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India.


Since long past , the problem of Regionalization in the academic jargon of sciences seems to have defied to accept as a rational solution. The problem of methodological development , which one often come across in the jargon of academic discussion s over decades , right from the Hartshorn to the present day Innovative techniques , looming at large. The latter refers to the applied aspect of the discipline. Geographers often argue with the methodological contents but find no acceptable solutions of the problem.

However , the present volume aims at both the above mentioned problems and attempts at some possible solutions. The Author has the great privilege and opportunity to test this International methodology on the state of Rajasthan to judge the validity and applicability range within the given framework . With a view to stress the importance , and usefulness and utility of such an effective work in its true sense and to contribute an effective and applied manner towards the problem of regionalization, and regional planning that this study reveals most of the exponents and components of the agricultural systems which helps in identifying their related types. It is worth of mentioning here and to note that the state of Rajasthan is reckoned with 3 first order types of agriculture out of 5 in the world. It is not because of the framework , but due to the varied nature and characture of the geographical background. The state is further identified in to 5 second order types and 7 third order types. Prior to it no as such attempt is made, not only on the state but also in India.,as it may be claimed the first hand work in Indian union.

Therefore, it may not sound preposterous if suggested that this type of work may be followed in other part of the country, from the planning point of view as Dr M S Swaminathan the then Member of the Planning Commission, Government of India, New Delhi also has stressed the importance and need of such work. ..similar views has been expressed by the Director of Central Arid Zone Research Institute –CAZRI, Jodhpur while sending report to Government of India, New Delhi. (P M`s office had asked to examine the work ). Latter on Dr Swaminathan (on 22nd September 1980 ), asked Dr G. Rangaswami, Adviser (Agriculture ), ICAR, New Delhi, to examine the paper ,writing on that “It is very important field of study "

On response this letter , Sada Nand Dy. Adviser (Agriculture ), Agricultural Division, Planning Commission, Government, responded that" your paper has been examined in the Planning Commission And the idea contained therein is supported" It might not be inappropriate to convey the views express by the expert pioneer of this field Prof. J. Kostrowwicki, Director, Institute of Geography ,Polish Academy of Sciences ,Warsaw Poland, "Thank you very much for the type script of your interesting study on Agricultural Typology of Rajasthan…….I am sure that the study is worthy enough to go through".


By Professor Mohd. Shafi Chair person, Dept. of Geography, Aligarh Muslim Uiversity, Aligarh UP. and Vice President of International Geographical Union, New York ,USA.

Whittlesey`s classification of Agriculture on a world wide scale was widely acclaimed as he attempted to delimit Agricultural Regions on the basis of agricultural phenomena. Whittlesey identified five features of agriculture which were considered for the delimitation of world agricultural regions, ( a ) crop and livestock association ( b) The intensity of land use ( C )the Processing and disposal of farm products , (d) the method and degree of farm mechanization and (e) the types and association of buildings and other structures associated with agriculture. With the help of these criteria Whittlesey divided the world in to thirteen agricultural regi ons. However, it is not possible to differentiate these classes statistically.

The International Geographical Union established an International Commission on Agricultureal Typology in order to introduce a rethinking on classification of world agriculture based on variables that were quantitatively measurable. Prof. Jerzy Kostrowicki Director of the Institute of Geography and Spatial Organisation of the Polish Academy of Sciences , was elected as its Chairman.

Slecting twenty four variables Kostrowicki identifies eighteentypes of agriculture.he has described the characteristics in to three groups : Characteristcs associated with Social organization and ownership, Characteristics associated with techniques and Characteristics related to production.

Dr B L Sharma has applied these attributes of agriculture, as identified by Kostrowicki on Rajasthan . This is indeed a commendable effort and on the basis of Typological regions , Dr Sharma has touched the problem of regional imbalances and agricultural planning in Rajasthan .

The study is a valuable contribution in regional study of agriculture and will be usefull to students and teachers working in the field of Agricultural Geography."

Sd - DrMohammad Shafi, M A ,Ph D.,
Dated 3-5-1983 ( London )

Book Review

(By- Prof. B. Andreae, West Germany – Book Review Editor- Prof. A Weber.).

The book review of this research work published in the Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture , Frankfurt, (Main ) West Germany (then ), Vol. 23 , No. 3 , July- September 1984.P 284.

Sharma B L :Agricultural Typology of Rajasthan ; An Application of International Scheme, Udaipur (Raj. ) 1983, 28 illustrations , 22x 14 cms., Rs. 80/- L 5.0 Net.

"The scientific efforts to develop classification systems for farms and agricultural regions are as old as agricultural science itself. For many smaller regions we have applicabl classification methods now . Nevertheless, for world agriculture as a whole we have not yet succeeded . Any research work that brings us nearer to that goal is welcome.

The small book we are concerned with seems to be a first hand application of International scheme:” Agricultural Typology” in the State of Rajasthan, in the Indian Uion. The application is of high significance in many respects. The scheme is sponsored by the Commission on “ world Types of Agriculture” led by Prof. J. Kostrowicki, , under the auspices of International Geographical Union ( IGU ).

The present study is not limited to the state of Rajasthan, but actually it paves a way for similar studies ………in Indian Union. ….

Part one deals with the Geographical background………Part two is concerned with subsistence to semi- subsistence ……and finally their regionalization . The throws the light on the problems of Agriculture…….in third part.

The International scheme with all its virtues of application to macro to messo- scale will probably enjoy universal recognition and acceptance by geographers from all over the world. But despite of that it has weaknesses of wide intervals …….farming systems.

To facilitate the research in identifying typical agricultural regions in the demarcation of regions …….at the end of the book.

I am sure that the study is worthy enough to be read. The study is a valuable contribution to the regional studies of Agriculture."

Bernd Andreae.

Contents: Chapters: 1-Introduction 2- A Geographical Setting of the Area 3- Social Attributes Operational / Organizational, Attributes 5-Production Attributes 6- Structural Attributes 7- Types of Agriculture 8- Typological Regions 9- Regional Problems and Planning. References Bibliography.

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